Today’s piece is a guest blog post from KC James. One half of that kick-ass wedding Page wrote about recently, KC studied filmmaking and is an avid collector of analog film media. His regular online haunt is Popcorn Logic: Film & Television where he writes about film and TV trivia.
And check out what he wrote for Poly Land today:
The Surprisingly Long History of Non-Monogamous Films in Hollywood
Since their introduction in 1895, motion pictures have always pushed the envelope of what’s considered “racy.” The earliest depictions of homosexuality came in 1895, the first year they were released, and the first kiss soon followed in 1896.
While there have been documentaries here and there on the subject, major motion pictures that drive audiences and profits have mostly ignored the subject of polyamory. Is the subject too risqué? Was it that pesky Hays Code?
I have done my best to dissect the history of polyamory in American cinema and the accuracy of their depictions below.
Design for Living (1933), an Early Film About Polyamory
The earliest depiction of polyamory I was able to find was 1933’s “Design for Living” starring Gary Cooper, Fredric March, and Miriam Hopkins, who in the film have a relationship together.
Based on the stage play of the same name, the film was a box office and critical disappointment, but has since gained more positive reviews in the last few decades. The movie managed to squeak by the newly formed Hays Code (the predecessor of today’s MPAA rating system), but just nearly. It was banned from re-release in 1934 for its sexuality when the Hays Code was put into full effect.
Polyamory would be virtually nonexistent in American cinema for 36 years after Design for Living’s release.
1969 Heralded the Release of Not One, But Two, New Films
The aforementioned Hays Code stifled and censored everything regarding sexuality in film that wasn’t deeply buried in subtext until it was reorganized into the current MPAA in 1968.
For nearly a decade, the free love movement had been raging outside of Hollywood, and the moment that restrictions in film began to lax, all those hippies jumped on the chance to make motion pictures that more closely regarding their changing world views. In 1969 “Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice” was released, depicting an open marriage, and eventually a budding poly relationship between two married couples.
That very same year the musical “Paint Your Wagon,” starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Marvin, and Jean Seberg was released.
While “Paint Your Wagon” was a critical and commercial failure, “Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice” was a resounding success, receiving award nominations, and a short-lived television series based on the picture. Despite conventional America’s protests, non-monogamy had made its way into the American psyche.
But How Do These Early Films Depict Consensual Non-Monogamy?
Much to my personal delight, the movies from this era I have personally seen depict polyamory and non-monogamy in a generally positive light. In all of the movies above the relationship — and the drama involved — is the primary focus of their films.
However, the women in these films are unfortunately generally the source of the drama, either deciding to end the relationship at some point or pushing one or both parties away. This is still a more favorable depiction than women typically received in Hollywood at the time.
While these movies are not perfect, they were definitely progressive and at the very least didn’t condemn the idea of polyamory.
Another Big Budget Film Wouldn’t Happen for Many Years
After this initial boom of non-monogamy and polyamory in film, the topic appeared to settle down. Nearly all movies featuring the lifestyle after 1970 were low-budget independent movies, being well meaning but most failing to grip the public eye like “Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice.” (Please see my list below though, which includes a list of those releases.)
It wasn’t until fairly recently that Hollywood has begun giving attention to the topic of polyamory and non monogamy again.
Movies like 2001’s “Bandits” and 2009’s “Amelia” were big budget feature films that featured polyamorous relationships, albeit the relationships were not the focus of the films. Neither these nor 2012’s “Savages” were successful in the public eye though, failing to make a profit at the box office or garnish critical praise.
Professor Marston and the Wonder Women (2017)
“Professor Marston and the Wonder Women,” released in 2017, would be the first film featuring polyamory in recent memory to receive positive critic reviews, despite not being particularly financially successful, generating just under $2 million at the box office.
Despite the lack of box office buzz, the amount of publicity around the movie pushed polyamory into the public eye in a way it hasn’t been since the release of “Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice” nearly 48 years before.
The Future of Polyamory in Hollywood
What does the future of polyamory in Hollywood bring? Not much it appears. It was thought that non-monogamy would play some part in the recently released Freddy Mercury biopic “Bohemian Rhapsody,” but the picture instead glossed over Freddie’s Mercury’s unconventional life and relationships.
Polyamory and non-monogamy will no doubt continue to be featured in independent movies, but it might be some time before another major studio film featuring the subject is released.
List of Films Featuring Polyamory and Other Forms of Consensual Non-Monogamy:
While I only focused on a few films in this article, here is a full list of films I was able to find featuring non-monogamy and polyamory that you might want to check out:
Design for Living – 1933
Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice – 1969
Paint Your Wagon – 1969
Lovin’ Molly – 1974
A Change of Seasons – 1980
Willie and Phil – 1980
A Small Circle of Friends – 1980
Summer Lovers – 1982
Micki + Maude – 1984
She’s Gotta Have It – 1986
Henry & June – 1990
The Wedding Banquet – 1993
Sirens – 1994
Threesome – 1994
Carrington – 1995
The Doom Generation – 1995
Breaking the Waves – 1996
Afterglow – 1996
The Blood Oranges – 1997
The Object of My Affection – 1998
Bandits – 2001
The Cuckoo – 2002
A Home at the End of the World – 2004
Kiss Me Again – 2006
Fling – 2008
Vicky Cristina Barcelona – 2008
Breaking Upwards – 2009
Amelia – 2009
Four Lovers – 2010
The Freebie – 2010
Savages – 2012
Professor Marston & the Wonder Women – 2017
If you want to chat more about polyamory in film, you’re welcome to join us at Poly Land’s private Discord server, where we have enthusiastic and oddly specific conversations about pretty much anything — always through a non-monogamy-friendly lens.